Thursday, 30 June 2016
Friday, 17 June 2016
The Anne Frank Diary Fraud (tests prove majority of manuscript were written with a ball-point pen, not invented prior to 1951...oops!)
Anne Frank's Diary[2015 Nov] The Diary of Anne & Otto Frank! Introduction by Gilad Atzmon: For decades those who questioned the authenticity of Anne Frank’s diary have been castigated as vile holocaust deniers and anti-Semitic bigots. Jewish organisations have taken pains to defy any attempt to interfere with the Anne Frank legacy. Surprise, it is now the holders of the copyright to Anne Frank’s diary who insist that Anne wasn’t the only author of her own diary. Apparently, as some history revisionists, including Robert Faurisson, have been claiming for years; “The Diary of Anne Frank” was not what it claimed to be. What caused the sudden change in attitude to Anne’s masterpiece? Shekels. The Diary Of Anne Frank’s copyright is due to expire in Jan, 70 years after the author’s death in Bergen-Belsen. Adding Otto Frank as a co-author would allow the copyright royalties to continue until 2050 (Otto Frank died in 1980). We are dealing here with a substantial amount of mammon. After all, the diary is the best selling Jewish book, it is way more popular than the Talmud, the Torah or even Herzl’s The Jewish State . This shameless shift in narrative provides another opportunity to delve into the elastic nature of Jewish history and its minimal regard for truth or authenticity. Once enough money is involved, we change the past to fit with our emerging narrative.
[back] Holocaust revisionism
[back] Holocaust revisionism
 The Anne Frank Diary Fraud by Brian Harring
Is The Diary of Anne Frank genuine? by Robert Faurisson
The Anne Frank Diary Fraud (tests prove majority of manuscript werre written with a ball-point pen, not invented prior to 1951...oops!)Book
Anne Frank's Diary, A Hoax by Ditlieb Felderer
Felderer published a book showing that the Anne Frank diary was a hoax; his research included examining the building where the Anne Frank Museum was located today, samples of the girl's handwriting and the internal contradictions within the diary itself. Felderer wrote to Otto Frank, Anne Frank's father, requesting the opportunity to examine the actual handwritten diary. This request was denied. Felderer suggested in his book that an analysis of the diary ink should be made to determine authenticity; this was later done on part of the manuscript in a West German court proceeding. This analysis found that certain parts of the diary were written in ball-point pen and therefore must have been written after the war since ball-point pens were not sold during the war. Although Felderer was investigated in 1979 by the Swedish Attorney General concerning this book, no cause for any charge was found. Zündel was aware of the book and the investigation. (19-4529 to 4532) [Ditlieb Felderer] The 'False News' Trial of Ernst Zündel -- 1988
The truth about the Anne Frank Diary was first revealed in 1959 by the Swedish journal Fria Ord. It established that the Jewish novelist Meyer Levin had written the dialogue of the "diary" and was demanding payment for his work in a court action against Otto Frank. A condensation of the Swedish articles appeared in the American Economic Council Letter, April 15th, 1959, as follows: "History has many examples of myths that live a longer and richer life than truth, and may become more effective than truth. "The Western World has for some years been made aware of a Jewish girl through the medium of what purports to be her personally written story, Anne Frank's Diary. Any informed literary inspection of this book would have shown it to have been impossible as the work of a teenager.
"A noteworthy decision of the New York Supreme Court confirms this point of view, in that the well known American Jewish writer, Meyer Levin, has been awarded $50,000 to be paid him by the father of Anne Frank as an honorarium for Levin's work on the Anne Frank Diary."
Mr. Frank, in Switzerland, has promised to pay to his race kin, Meyer Levin, not less than $50,000 because he had used the dialogue of Author Levin just as it was and "implanted" it in the diary as being his daughter's intellectual work." Further inquiries brought a reply on May 7th, 1962 from a firm of New York lawyers, which stated: "I was the attorney for Meyer Levin in his action against Otto Frank, and others. It is true that a jury awarded Mr. Levin $50,000 in damages, as indicated in your letter. That award was later set aside by the trial justice, Hon. Samuel C. Coleman, on the ground that the damages had not been proved in the manner required by law. The action was subsequently settled while an appeal from Judge Coleman's decision was pending. Did Six Million Really Die? by Richard Harwood
The 15-year-old girl and her father, Otto Frank, were deported from the Netherlands to Auschwitz in September 1944. Several weeks later, in the face of the advancing Soviet army, Anne was evacuated along with many other Jews to the Bergen-Belsen camp, where she died of typhus in March 1945.
Her father came down with typhus in Auschwitz and was sent to the camp hospital to recover. He was one of thousands of sick and feeble Jews who were left behind when the Germans abandoned the camp in January 1945, shortly before it was overrun by the Soviets. He died in Switzerland in 1980. If the German policy had been to kill Anne Frank, neither she, nor her father and sister (along with many other Jews), would not have "survived" Auschwitz. "As tragic as it was," said Weber, "their fate cannot be reconciled with the extermination story."  Debating the Undebatable: The Weber-Shermer Clash
Your skinny cappuccino may come with several unwanted chemicals.
The average Australian consumes three kilograms of coffee a year and Dr Paul Brent, FSANZ's chief scientist, says tastes are changing. Instant coffee still dominates the market, but there has been a shift towards cafe varieties, with takeaway coffee now part of the daily ritual. From arsenic to aluminium, copper, tin, nickel and acrylamide - a chemical that has the World Health Organization (WHO) on alert aft er it was found to cause cancer in rats - most of the coffees analysed had about a dozen contaminants.
Heavy metalThe heavy metals leach into the coffee beans through the soil, but other contaminants, such as acrylamide, occur as a result of roasting the beans at temperatures higher than 100 degrees. Scientists say there is no cause for alarm, although they will investigate further as part of the next Australian Total Diet Study.
"Acrylamide is a chemical we've known about for a long time and it does cause cancer in rodents, but there's no evidence it causes cancer in humans," Dr Brent says. Acrylamide also forms when roasting potatoes, burning toast or frying food, when sugars interact with amino acids. "The roasting creates chemicals such as acrylamide and sometimes furan, but the metals are probably more robust and, once they're in the plants in those very small levels, the roasting and processing doesn't get rid of them."
Roasting hotPeter Stathos, chairman of the Australian Coffee Traders Association, says more people want darker, stronger coffee, and the longer and hotter you roast, the more acrylamide is formed. "It's a fine balance because in its raw form, the bean is like a little stone, so it has to be roasted at temperatures of about 200 degrees," he explains.
If it was roasted at lower temperatures, the coffee would be undrinkable, he says. Furan, another chemical the WHO is concerned about because of its carcinogenic properties, was found in all eight coffee types tested. Dr Brent says rates of contaminants in coffee in Australia compare favourably internationally and are seen to be so low the regulator has no maximum levels set, unlike fish, which is regulated for mercury and lead content.
"The less we have of cadmium, mercury and lead, the better, but we're not finding a lot of those heavy metals in coffee," Dr Brent says. Cadmium was found only in mocha, while lead was found in all the types, except plunger coffee. FSANZ analysed samples of cappuccino, latte, flat white, short black, long black, mocha, instant and plunger coffees in Sydney and Melbourne. It tested for 133 contaminants and identified 14. No pesticide residues or mercury were found.
Coffees with milk tend to have higher zinc levels and milk also helps dilute the furan content. Dr Peter Clift on, head of nutrition science at the CSIRO, says there is no cause for concern. "Zinc, manganese and copper are all involved in various enzyme systems, in plants and humans. I'd only be concerned if they were there in toxic levels," he says.
He says all the contaminants detected by FSANZ would be found in thousands of products if scientists went looking for them, and most are actually beneficial in small doses. Australia imports most of its coffee from Brazil, Central America and Asia. Ross Quail, outgoing president of the Australasian Specialty Coffee Association and a master roaster, says some of the contaminants may have come from the milk or even products used to clean coffee machines.
He says lower commercial grades that are priced for supermarkets might have fewer checks and balances, but at the specialty end, there is stringent quality control and few contaminants. "Australia's got some of the most robust quarantine in the world," he says.
So how much coffee can you safely drink? "You'd have to drink a hell of a lot of coffee to get anywhere near a dangerous level of any of these contaminants," Dr Brent says. "Like BPA [bisphenol A], a baby would have to consume kilograms of dairy custard every day of his life to get near the levels set for the tolerable daily intake."
Saturday, 11 June 2016
Thomas Jefferson refused to renew the Charter of the National Bank of America - the Equivalent of the Federal Reserve today - thereby triggering the War of 1812
Saturday, September 24, 2011
by Henry Makow Ph.D.
August 8, 2011
(See this video of Putin visiting faux crash scene. That's not sorrow he's feeling. It's boredom.)
"This coup d'etat leaves no doubt that, despite cosmetic differences, Vladimir Putin is an Illuminati Agent. The operation could not have taken place without his collaboration."
The elimination of the Polish nationalist elite April 10, 2010 in a bogus plane crash ranks with 9-11 as the greatest crime of our fledgling 21st century.
The crime exhibits breath-taking audacity and depravity on the part of the Illuminati bankers and their minions.
The plane carrying the Polish President Kaczyński, his wife, and the heads of the Polish army, navy, secret service and central bank was probably diverted to another airport where all 94 passengers were liquidated. Then, an identical plane made a crash landing and the pilots were shot. ("Change of plans," the shooter is heard saying on videotape.)
See my account: "How Satanists Say They're Sorry" There were no bodies or baggage at the crash site. No ambulances were sent.
The Poles were planning to commemorate the slaughter of 15,000 Polish officers in 1940 by the Soviet NKVD. Thanks to the "plane crash," the Communist NWO gangsters, who still govern Russia, finished what their predecessors began: the elimination of Poland's leadership class who obstructed the country's integration into the New World Order.
This coup d'etat leaves no doubt that, despite cosmetic differences, Vladimir Putin is an Illuminati agent. The operation could not have been accomplished without his collaboration.
This heinous crime and the ease with which it has been covered up indicates how much control the Illuminati bankers exercise. Last week, Polish collaborator Prime Minister Donald Tusk released an "investigation" into the crash which essentially laid the blame on the Polish air force and its pilots, which is also the official Russian view. The Polish Minister of Defense and a handful of air force generals have been made scapegoats and forced to resign.
The bankster-controlled mass media has uniformly accepted the official story and aided the cover-up. The Guardian recently carried a story focusing on the divisions the crash has caused in Polish society and saying the majority of Poles reject the "martyr" mentality.
The majority of Poles "see "the Polish martyrdom mentality as an obstacle to Poland being able to flow in the political and intellectual mainstream of Europe and they are ashamed that such an image of the country has been created abroad."
The Guardian portrays doubters as a minority yet a poll taken in April 2011 indicated that two thirds of Poles believed the disaster hadn't been explained nor ever will it be. Only 8% thought it was an accident.
The crash investigations have all the hallmarks of a cover-up. When the Russian report came out last January, Rafal Rogalski, a lawyer who represents many bereaved families said:
"I am shocked by the report ... it is an absolute scandal and is not in line with reality. It is absolutely unacceptable. In the matter of the investigation, the families want the truth... not the presentation of just one side..."
Meanwhile journalists who challenge the official story are being imprisoned: "Polish investigative journalist Rafal Gawronski spent 45 days in prison without being sentenced for any crime at all. He was not allowed to use a phone for two weeks. His family and supporters have only just been able to find out where he is after he was arrested for slander" outside the President's Palace in Warsaw - and simply because he reported the facts about the mysterious Smolensk plane crash incident."
Like 9-11, the Polish coup d'etat is a reminder that we already live in a veiled tyranny. The New World Order is already here. Has been for some time.
Jarosław Rymkiewicz, a famous Polish poet and intellectual guru of the Kaczyński camp, said recently that the Polish nation has always been made up of two groups: patriots and collaborators.
Today, this is true of every country. Tyranny wouldn't be possible without the collaboration of a class of "puppet leaders" in business, government, education and media. They are willing to betray the memory of the victims of 9-11 and Smolensk and become accessories by aiding in the cover-ups. They are willing to betray their country, religion and civilization. They are about to reap their reward and I don't think they'll like it.
Russian air traffic controllers blamed for plane crash which killed Polish president
Polish Defence Minister resigns after his department heavily criticised
By Daily Mail Reporter
29th July 2011
Russian air traffic controllers have been blamed for the plane crash which killed Polish President Lech Kaczynski and 95 others.
A Polish report has stated they gave incorrect and confusing landing instructions to pilots - and has put further strain on the relationship between the two neighbours.
But it also heavily criticised Polish officials and procedures, and has seen the immediate resignation of Defence Minister Bogdan Klich - whose department oversaw the training of the crew of the doomed flight.
Today's report challenges a Russian aviation commission report, published in January, that put sole blame for the disaster on Polish officials.
Fatal: The plane carrying Polish president Lech Kaczynski crashed near the Smolensk airport killing everyone on board*******
That report struck Poles as an attempt to avoid any responsibility for the plane crash in heavy fog at a rudimentary airport near Smolensk.
Since then Poland has eagerly awaited its own experts' report.
They hoped it would create a more balanced picture of the crash on April 10, 2010, which killed dozens of senior officials along with the president and first lady, in the worst Polish disaster since World War II.
As key causes of the crash it cites wrong positioning of the plane during attempted landing, due to insufficient training of the pilots to fly the plane, a Tupolev-154.
It also said there was a lack of proper cooperation among the crew and an overly slow reaction to an automatic terrain warning system that warned pilots they were flying too low.
Incorrect information from the airport control tower on the plane's position prevented the crew from realizing they were making mistakes, it added
Jerzy Miller, the interior minister and head of the investigation commission, said at a presentation today: 'There was no single cause, but an accumulation of causes led to the crash.'
In Moscow, deputy chairman of Russia's State Duma's foreign affairs committee, Andrei Klimov, said he believed the Polish pilots were to blame and lashed out at Warsaw for what he called politicizing the investigation.
He said: 'This report is not a technical, but a political one. The results were compiled with a nod to the political situation in order to show that Russians were to blame for at least something.'
Prime Minister Donald Tusk said Klich submitted his resignation Thursday evening, knowing that the report would point to mistakes in the military training of pilots and flight procedures.
The symbolism of the plane disaster occurring on a mission to remember the dead added another layer of Polish national grief and resentment in the weeks and months after the crash.
At first it seemed the accident had helped Poland and Russia heal some of their historic wounds, because an outpouring of sympathy by Russians was met by Poles with much gratitude.
But the Russian report again strained relations, adding to a lingering sense of aggrievement in Poland.
Poles remain bitter about the Katyn massacres, the Soviet Union's occupation of Poland's eastern half during the war and Moscow's domination of Poland during the Cold War.
Right-wing groups have promoted conspiracy theories, with some saying they believe Russians killed Kaczynski and the others by producing artificial fog that blinded the pilots.
Miller said there was no artificial fog at the Smolensk airport that day.*******
Memorial: The coffin of Polish president Lech Kaczynski is laid out at the Presidential Palace chapel in Warsaw, Poland*******
How Russians Staged Polish "Regime Change" (Updated)
Henry Makow Ph.D.
April 22, 2010
Tuesday: Here is what I believed happened. They had to rig the time 15 minutes later as 'official' to coincide with the distance and the flight time from Warsaw because the ghost plane had come in a bit too early - something like that! In fact, the bogus story of the plane circling around the airport several times amounted to additional time, but was proven false. I also believed this plane left Warsaw on time, as they were on a schedule for a very important event.
Read this one carefully because it contains so many of the points which I have previous made. The plane which was circling the airport appears to have been seeding the area as Russia has indeed been involved with weather technology, so a temporary fog was created. The cockpit was intact and it is utter nonsense to believe they were burned, as the boys saw the approach and one wing hit a tree, and the other wing got
sliced by a hydro wire. Thus, all the fuel was gone before the belly flop landing took place which meant virtually no fire. It was a rare plane crash, and there should have been survivors but no bodies to be seen out of 96 passengers - sure and it is time once again to believe in the tooth fairy.
Polish Prosecutor Seeks Answers in Russia
Monday: Twin Brother to Run for Polish President
From an informed reader:
The pilots approaching Smolensk contrary to media reports diverted their landing elsewhere based on the reports given to them by the tower and probably landed at another military airport in Belarus. Then the old KGB arrested all, and none of these people will ever see the light on day. It is called the plane-switch, whereby, an identical plane was ordered from somewhere with four in the cockpit, according to union laws
of flight in Russia, to deliver a passenger to Smolensk.
Russia now controls the defense and security policy of Belarus, has established military bases, and runs key defense installations.
Now, remember that Putin was there about a week before, and his comrades in the tower were given orders to fudge a landing and cause an intentional crash for the patsies flying in on a very fixed schedule; plan a clean up team to make things look good; kill anyone in sight; and the black boxes would be fixed to say this or that; propaganda would abound to confuse; and you will all be rewarded.
Henry there is no other explanation, but when my theory is put in place it makes sense.
This is in relationship to the gunshots fired as the pilots who flew the ghost plane might have survived the bellyflop type of landing; the wings and fuel were off the plane as well. I checked the cockpit contours with a standard photo of this plane too. This photo of the crashed plane appears to be a cockpit, and it was intact enough for an escape through an emergency window exit.
FRIDAY APRIL 23
Now, believe the plane left Poland with all passengers with a crack flight team in the cockpit (4) and this plane had been all done over in December with state of the art equipment, but I believe the pilots were in touch with the tower in -Smolensk-, and based on what they were told landed in Belarus which is still under a soft Russian control even though there is a certain amount of independence with one exception, as all old these old military bases for plane landings are under the control of Russia.
The key to this entire conspiracy is manifested with numerous eyewitness reports and videos; in fact, all press who stayed at a nearby hotel to report the event had all there photos and all video equipment confiscated by the Russian secret police. Yep, and when the patsy plane was flying in for a landing the speed was low, and two kids on are youtube video described that one wing hit a tree and came off, and then the other wing slammed into a power line and it came off. This was not a power crash at all, but rather a floating crash, and many should have survived the impact - very little fire.
Now the patsy plane that was sent to Smolensk on a schedule from Russia was either sent there to deliver a passenger or to pick someone up under military order, so even four or five at the most were on this patsy plane, and it was just business as usual with one catch; the tower was given instructions to make it crash in order to cover up the real operation at hand. Ok now lets get to the bottom line with this scenario, and why I spent a lot of time watching this all.
All videos and eyewitness reports who were at the scene first, saw no luggage and no bodies anywhere so go figure with a plane that held almost 100 people - poof. Come on give me a break as this was a belly flop type of crash with very little fire on landing.
Makow comment: This would account for why there were no ambulances. The plane was empty except for possibly the pilots who may have been killed. The same kind of airport "reception" may have greeted the passengers on the 9-11 planes.
Crash Videographer murdered
(left, Empty seats where Polish leadership would have commemorated the victims of the Katyn Massacre.)
How Satanists Say "We're Sorry"
By Henry Makow, Ph.D.
In April 1940, the Soviet NKVD massacred the cream of Poland's nationalist and Christian intelligentsia in the Katyn Forest and elsewhere. They were slaughtered because they wouldn't agree to join the Communists in fronting a future occupation of Poland.
Seventy years later, on April 10, 2010, the heirs of the NKVD, who still run Russia, probably finished the job. They probably engineered a plane crash which killed the Polish President, the heads of the army and navy, the secret service and much of the patriotic wing of the Polish government. Thus they neatly eliminated one more obstacle to Satanic world government which is descending on the planet like a dreaded darkness.
This is how Satanists say, "We're sorry!" By repeating the outrage, again and again, until they are finally stopped.
The grounds for suspicion are numerous.
1. The plane was Russian and had recently been "refurbished" in Russia.
One blogger, a pilot, wrote, "Circumstances, however, point to a major accident or intentional blocking of the control system. Such a blockade may be intentionally installed so that it launched at a release from the chassis or flaps on the line immediately before landing."
2. As in the Pentagon attack, where there was no wreckage, there were no bodies to be found. Here is the YouTube. If the plane was at tree height, there would have been survivors. There would have been bodies. There would been luggage. As with the 9-11 passengers, it is possible the occupants were taken off the plane somewhere else, held or murdered. On Saturday, Russian authorities said all bodies had been found. On Monday the story had changed.
A Polish observer wrote: "Given the unlikelihood of Poland's top political and military leaders flying on the same plan, the execution or kidnapping of some of them in Poland cannot be ruled out. To explain their deaths to the general public, their names could have been added to the passenger list. According to media, only 14 bodies could be identified in Moscow with the rest being too badly burned."
A Polish friend wrote to me:"There is no sign of even one body or blood, the Polish cameraman thought that the plane was empty and when he was walking and recording it, he just noticed in shock that the plane was Polish but still didn't know it was President's plane.
"The plane was very low, at the level of trees but they could recognize only 14 bodies, the rest was shattered into pieces or burnt and needed DNA testing.
"They never called any ambulances, no doctors, only one fire engine and immediately they stated that nobody survived.In this video there is nobody searching for bodies, nobody looking if any people needed help, just fire engine and quite quickly coffins were sent. They said first that all the bodies were found and then next day, that only 14 could be recognized and they were still searching for bodies. There is lie after lie. Most of the people on the plane were the president's supporters and belonged to his party, being in strong opposition to prime minister who wasn't there.The cameraman was caught and pushed away from the place, he said later on TV that there was no chance there could be over 80 bodies ( which was cut off later from TV interview), he hasn't seen even one."
3. The entourage was supposed to travel by train. Suddenly the plans were changed and the generals were induced to join the group.
4. Eye witnesses heard explosions. A bomb? Another said the fog appeared just before the landing and quickly dispersed afterward. The Russians claimed the pilot didn't speak Russian which turned out to be a lie. The New York Times peddled the story that the President made the pilot land against his better judgment. This is the same New York Times that hid Stalin's mass murders from the American people.
My Polish friend writes: "Others say clearly about hearing the noise like from a bomb exploding and then silence.Besides, if there are awful conditions the plane is not allowed to land and the airport is closed for landing.
"It seems, that they were just normally trying to land with no worries and problems and suddenly something happened with the plane that lead all of them to death.
"The most valuable, christian and patriotic head of Poland has been wiped out with one blow, now the way is free, nobody will interrupt big brother any more."
I don't know how the Satanists pulled off 9-11 but I know the official story is not true. The same applies here. Accidents like this don't happen by accident. In one stroke, the globalist Masons, who are behind Putin as well as Obama, removed a thorn in their side.
Yes the Poles are in Afghanistan, but they had been steering an independent course on the Euro and the EU, and they rejected the swine flu vaccine and hysteria. Kaczynski was regarded as skeptical of the European Union while he fought to defend Poland's sovereignty against Brussels and to protect its traditional, conservative values. In 2008, he argued against ratifying the union's Lisbon Treaty for fear its prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation would become Polish law.
By virtue of its Catholic heritage, Poland is one of the last bastions of civilization in Europe. This will make the struggle of the Polish people, and all those resisting satanic and globalist enslavement, all the more difficult.*******
Some of the Most Prominent Victims
A glance at some of the most prominent victims of the crash of Poland's presidential plane, according to the official passenger list, released by the president's office.
Lech Kaczynski, 60. Poland's president, a nationalist conservative who had been in office since 2005. A founder of the Law and Justice party, now in opposition, and the twin brother of its leader, former Prime Minister Jaroslaw Kaczynski.
Maria Kaczynska, 66, Poland's first lady; an economist and translator of English and French, had carried out charity work in her role as first lady. Her uncle was killed at Katyn.
Gen. Franciszek Gagor, 58. Army chief of staff since Feb. 2006. From 2004 to 2006, was Poland's representative at NATO in Brussels.
Gen. Andrzej Blasik, 47, head of the Air Force since 2007. Received professional military education in Montgomery, Alabama, in 2005.
Vice Admiral Andrzej Karweta, 51, Navy chief commander since November 2009. From 2002-2005 served at the Supreme Allied Command Atlantic, SACLANT in Norfolk, Virginia.
Gen. Tadeusz Buk, 49, land forces commander since Sept. 2009. Served in 2007 as commander of Polish troops in Iraq.
Slawomir Skrzypek, 46, president of the National Bank of Poland since 2007. A longtime colleague of Lech Kaczynski, served under him at Warsaw City Hall from 2002-5.
Aleksander Szczyglo, 46, head of the National Security Office, a former defense minister under Kaczynski's brother.
Jerzy Szmajdzinski, 58, a deputy parliament speaker, left-wing lawmaker and the opposition Democratic Left Alliance's candidate for presidential elections this year. Served as defense minister at the time of the Iraq war.
Ryszard Kaczorowski, 90, from 1989-90 Poland's last president-in-exile in London. In December 1990, passed on the insignia of the presidency to the first democratically elected president, Lech Walesa, in a high-profile ceremony.
Janusz Kurtyka, 49. A historian; since 2005 head of state-run National Remembrance Institute, which investigates communist-era crimes.
Anna Walentynowicz, 80, Solidarity activist. Her firing in August 1980 from the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk sparked a workers' strike that spurred the eventual creation of the freedom movement, of which she became a prominent member.
Piotr Nurowski, 64, head of Poland's Olympic Committee.
Krystyna Bochenek, 56, deputy parliament speaker, member of the prime minister's Civic Platform party.*******
Thursday, 9 June 2016
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with 2009 Norwegian spiral anomaly.
During its flight, the rocket eventually reached an altitude of 1,453 kilometers (903 mi), resembling a U.S. Navy submarine-launched Trident missile. As a result, fearing a high-altitude nuclear attack that could blind Russian radar, Russian nuclear forces were put on high alert, and the nuclear weapons command suitcase was brought to Russian president Boris Yeltsin, who then had to decide whether to launch a retaliatory nuclear strike against the United States.
BackgroundThe Norwegian rocket incident was a few minutes of post-Cold War nuclear tension that took place nearly four years after the end of the Cold War. While not as well known an incident as the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 (nor the Stanislav Petrov Incident, which was still classified information), the 1995 incident is considered to be one of the most severe. The 1995 incident occurred in the post-Cold War era, where many Russians were still very suspicious of the United States and NATO. In contrast, the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 had a much longer build-up.
DetectionAs the Black Brant XII rocket gained altitude, it was detected by the Olenegorsk early warning radar station in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. To the radar operators, the rocket appeared similar in speed and flight pattern to a U.S. Navy submarine-launched Trident missile, leading the Russian military to initially misinterpret the rocket's trajectory as representing the precursor to a possible attack by missiles from submarines.
EMP rocket scenarioOne possibility was that the rocket had been a solitary missile with a radar-blocking electromagnetic pulse (EMP) payload launched from a Trident missile at sea in order to blind Russian radars in the first stage of a surprise attack. In this scenario, gamma rays from a high-altitude nuclear detonation would create a very high-intensity electromagnetic pulse that would confuse radars and incapacitate electronic equipment. After that, according to the scenario, the real attack would start.
Post-stagingAfter stage separation, the rocket launch appeared on radar similar to multiple re-entry vehicles (MRVs); the Russian control center did not immediately realize that the Norwegian scientific rocket was headed out to sea, rather than toward Russia. Tracking the trajectory took eight of the ten minutes allotted to the process of deciding whether to launch a nuclear response to an impending attack (Trident submarine missiles from the Barents Sea could reach Russia's mainland in ten minutes).
ResponseThis event resulted in a full alert being passed up through the military chain of command all the way to President Boris Yeltsin, who was notified and the "nuclear briefcase" (known in Russia as Cheget) used to authorize nuclear launch was automatically activated. Yeltsin activated his "nuclear keys" for the first time. No warning was issued to the Russian populace of any incident; it was reported in the news a week afterward.
As a result of the alert, Russian submarine commanders were ordered to go into a state of combat readiness and prepare for nuclear retaliation.
After a while, Russian observers were able to determine that the rocket was heading away from Russian airspace and was not a threat. The rocket fell to earth as planned, near Spitsbergen, 24 minutes after launch.
The Norwegian rocket incident was the first and thus far only incident where any nuclear weapons state had its nuclear briefcase activated and prepared for launching an attack.
Prior notificationThe Norwegian and American scientists had notified thirty countries, including Russia, of their intention to launch a high-altitude scientific experiment aboard a rocket; however, the information was not passed on to the radar technicians. Following the incident, notification and disclosure protocols were re-evaluated and redesigned.
- Andreas Budalen; Dan Henrik Klausen (February 26, 2012). "Verden har aldri vært nærmere atomkrig" [The world has never been closer to nuclear war]. www.nrk.no (in Norwegian).
- This page was last modified on 11 May 2016, at 04:32.
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